How to test soil pH and adjust soil acidity


pH value of soil

Why is it important to know the pH of your soil, which plants prefer acidic or alkaline soil and how to adjust the acidity of the soil?

Whether you're planning to grow plants in either an edible or an ornamental garden, it is useful to know the pH of the soil in the garden, as different plants are suited to different soil acidity levels (pH). The pH scale describes how acidic or alkaline the soil is. This scale ranges from 0 to 14, with a pH value of 7 being neutral, a pH less than 7 indicating acidity and a pH greater than 7 indicating an alkalinity. The lower the pH number, the higher the acidity and the lower the alkalinity of the soil.

Soil pH affects cultivated plants in several ways. The acidity of the soil primarily affects the solubility of the necessary minerals in the soil and the ability of the plants to extract these nutrients from the soil. This means that even if there are plenty of nutrients in the soil, they may not be available to the plant if the soil pH is not appropriate. For example, in overly acidic soils, plants suffer from a deficiency of potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus or molybdenum. Conversely, in alkaline soils, elements such as iron, zinc, manganese, copper or boron may not be available to the plant. The pH of the soil is also important for the life of soil bacteria and various soil animals, and it also affects soil structure. All these factors influence whether plants will thrive and how resistant they will be to disease and pests.

The pH of the soil depends mainly on the soil composition (clay, sand, limestone and other natural components in the soil), but it's also affected by the way the soil is treated. Soil acidity can be increased over time by using fertilizers (especially synthetic fertilizers) or by green manuring (incorporating green plants or mulch into the soil).

Interesting fact: in chemical terms, acidity means the ability of the molecules of an element to pass on protons and, conversely, alkalinity means the ability of the molecules to receive protons.

How to test soil pH

how to test acidic soilSoil pH is measured using materials that change color as the pH changes. Such materials are referred to as pH indicators. Among the most practical and also the most affordable are litmus paper indicators for pH measuring. They can be found in drugstores or garden centers and are well priced at just cents apiece.

When testing soil pH with litmus indicators, take a sample of dry soil (just a few ounces/grams is sufficient), place it in a jar, and add distilled water (the warmer the better) in a about 1:1 ratio. Stir thoroughly to crumble the soil in the water and leave it to infuse for a few hours. Then dip a disposable litmus paper indicator into the prepared solution. The color of the litmus paper will change within a few seconds, and the given color shade will indicate the pH of the soil, from red (acidic) to yellow and green (neutral) to blue (alkaline). Distilled water is used for testing because its pH is neutral (7), whereas tap water is usually more alkaline and will affect the measurement. Litmus indicator papers for measuring soil pH do not need to have the whole pH scale from 0 to 14. For a soil pH scale, values between 4 and 9 are generally sufficient.

Another option for testing soil pH is to use an electronic soil pH tester, which works by measuring the conductivity of the soil, which is also affected by its acidity. Soil pH testers are both affordable and practical, as you simply stick them into the soil and the device immediately displays the soil's pH value on the screen. However, soil pH testers are not as accurate, as they're affected by the moisture content in the soil as well as the composition of water in the soil.

Soil classification based on its pH value:

pH 5 and less – strongly acidic soil

pH 5 - 6 – acidic soil

pH 6 - 7 – neutral to slightly acidic soil

pH 7 - 8 – alkaline soil

Interesting fact: the pH scale is logarithmic. This means that pH 6 is ten times more acidic than pH 7 and pH 5 is ten times more acidic than pH 6, etc.

How to adjust pH in soil

The acidity of the soil can be increased or decreased as necessary, depending on the types of plants you want to grow in your garden. For overly acidic soils, we can increase the soil pH by adding lime (ground limestone) or wood ash to the soil. The amount of lime needed to raise the pH varies depending on whether it is added to sandy or clay soil. To raise the soil pH from 5 to 6, only 3 oz. per square yard (100 g/square m) is needed for sandy soils, whereas up to three times the amount of limestone is needed for heavy clay soils.

If, on the other hand, your soil is too alkaline and you need to lower the pH, you can add peat, incorporate fresh organic material (needles, leaves, mulch, etc.) into the soil, or add sulfur or fertilizer.

If you would like to test the soil pH again after treatment, it is necessary to wait until the different components and layers of the soil have neutralized each other (approx. 3 months) to get an accurate reading.

What are the appropriate soil pH values for various plant species?

Various plant species are adapted to different soil types, including the pH range in which they can thrive. For example, wild strawberries have a wide range of tolerated pH (5.0 - 7.5), so they thrive in both acidic and alkaline soils, while blueberries typically thrive only in a narrow pH range (4.5 - 5.0).

A neutral to slightly acidic soil with a pH of 6-7 is best suited for most edible and ornamental plants, so these soil pH values are therefore considered ideal. As these are the vast majority of plant species, we won't include them in the list below, which will include plants that prefer a lower, more acidic pH, along with alkaline loving plants that will tolerate a more alkaline environment.

Strongly acidic soil loving plants (pH 4 - 5 )

Blueberries

Cranberries

Rhododendrons

Heathers

Hydrangeas (blue flowers)

Viburnum

Acidic soil loving plants (pH 5 - 6)

Potatoes

Sweet potatoes

Blackberries

Eggplant

Watermelon

Basil

Apple

Maple

Plants suited for mildly acidic, neutral and alkaline soil (up to pH 8)

Legumes (beans, peas, clover, vetch,…)

Vegetables (asparagus, beat, cabbage, kale, leek, spinach, garlic, corn, cauliflower, tomatoes)

Herbs (lavender, marjoram, salvia, yarow, šalvia)

Ornamental plants (periwingkle, lilac, hosta, lily, clematis, chrysanthemum, zinnia, ornamental grasses, ivy)

Trees (thuja, false cypress, rose of sharon, forsythia, beech, ash tree, chestnut, sweet cherry, sakura)

 

Related themes:

1. Find out How to use wood ash as a garden fertilizer

2. Find more about What ingredients are used in various potting mixes



You may also like

columnar apple and pear trees

How to choose and grow columnar fruit trees

Columnar fruit trees are very popular among growers and there are several reasons for this. This type of tree allows people who don't have a large yard to grow fruit. Columnar fruit trees can even be grown in pots so…

how to prune grapes

Pruning grape vines in two easy steps

Whether you grow wine grapes or table varieties, you've probably already encountered the question of how to prune grapes properly to keep the vines healthy and productive each season. Pruning grape vines affects how…

how to prune arborvitae

How to trim arborvitae

Arborvitae, also known as thuja, are very popular evergreen conifers, which growers use in their gardens in the form of hedges, as individual solitaries, or in combined plantings with other trees or shrubs. The most…

bushes

20 most beautiful bushes for your garden

Garden bushes, together with trees, are the backbone of any garden, large or small. Their shape brings texture and volume to the space, and their variability means they have something to offer in all seasons. The vast…

pH value of soil

How to test soil pH and adjust soil acidity

Whether you're planning to grow plants in either an edible or an ornamental garden, it is useful to know the pH of the soil in the garden, as different plants are suited to different soil acidity levels (pH). The pH…

when do you prune roses

Pruning roses in 6 easy steps

The key to achieving beautiful, abundantly flowering roses is annual pruning. Pruning removes dead and damaged parts of the plant, lets air and light reach the whole plant, and encourages the rose to grow. Although many…